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The basic principle and advantages of fiber laser

The basic principle and advantages of fiber laser

So far, fiber lasers have moved from theory to practice, from concept to device, and from laboratory to many application fields.

Especially in recent years, with the development of Pu mining technology of the semiconductor laser and improve double cladding fabrication process of rare earth doped fiber, fiber laser from low power laser has only become milliwatt laser single output reach tens of kilowatts, multiple output up to tens and even hundreds of thousands of watts of cluster watt level high power, a sought after international industrial lasers the new darling of the market.

As a result of breaking the limit output power, many significant advantages of its own plus fiber laser CO2 laser Nd:YAG laser has become the traditional strong competitors, it not only in laser printing, laser marking, laser processing, laser cutting and laser welding laser industrial field has occupied a considerable market share, more there are potential advantages in big things, space, medical and other fields.

This paper will introduce the basic principle and characteristics, development history and latest progress of fiber laser, and the possible future development trend of fiber laser.


The basic principle and advantages of fiber laser

Fiber laser is a kind of laser with optical fiber or doped fiber as working material.Depending on the type of work material, they can be divided into the following types:

(1) rare earth doped fiber laser..Fiber is used as matrix, in which the rare earth elements doped with Nd, Yb, Er and so on are activated and activated matrix to make fiber laser;


(2). The basic principle and advantages of fiber laserSuch as Ruby single crystal fiber laser, Nd:YAG single crystal fiber laser and so on;


(3). The basic principle and advantages of fiber laserMainly refers to the use of fiber nonlinear effects, such as stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering and other laser made;


(4). The basic principle and advantages of fiber laserThe basic principle and advantages of fiber laser


(5). The basic principle and advantages of fiber laserAn optical fiber laser made by injecting dye into a plastic core or cladding.


The difference between a laser and a general laser is that its working substance is an optical fiber, and the resonant cavity is often made up of fiber gratings which are made in the optical fiber.


The pump source is usually laser diode (LD) or LD array.The pumping modes include end pumping and side pumping, and the coupling modes of pump source and fiber include end coupling, side coupling, and Taper type fiber coupling.


The resonator includes a linear cavity (FP cavity) and an annular cavity, and the methods of implementation include optical lenses (dichroic mirrors) and fiber gratings.


The operation methods of fiber laser include continuous, pulse, tunable, modulated Q, mode-locked, frequency upconversion, etc..The output wavelength is divided into single wavelength and multi wavelength.


Because fiber lasers use fiber as the working material of lasers, they have the following remarkable advantages over other lasers:


(1) gain medium long fiber laser can extend its length conveniently so that pump light is fully absorbed.


This property makes the fiber laser operate at low pumping power, and the energy conversion efficiency is high.


(2) it has a large surface area / volume ratio”

If the diameter is 50um, lOm fiber length, the surface area / volume ratio of 40000:1., so the cooling effect, the heat load of the working substance, allowable ambient temperature is between -20 to +70 DEG C, without refrigeration system is huge, only need simple air-cooled.

(3) can work in harsh environment, such as high impact, high vibration, high temperature and dust conditions can operate normally, free from outside electromagnetic interference.

(4) it is compact and easy to integrate. Because of its excellent flexibility, fiber lasers can be made to be quite compact, flexible and easy to integrate between systems.

(5) it has good beam quality and is easy to realize single mode and single frequency operation

(6) high coupling efficiency, compatibility to fiber in fiber laser as the gain medium, and the transmission medium, so it is favorable to the coupling with the transmission fiber, high coupling efficiency, but also conducive to the compatibility with other fiber components.

(7) it is easy to obtain high power and high brightness. Because of the small diameter of the fiber core, the core is easy to form high power density, so it can obtain very high power and brightness.


Compared with the traditional laser, fiber laser has the advantages of good beam quality, compact volume, easy integration, strong anti-interference ability and so on. It has become a hot spot in the field of laser research.






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